Volume 7, Issue 1 (Winter 2019)                   Iran J Health Sci 2019, 7(1): 26-35 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Esmaeily H, Dolat E, Heidarian Miri H, Taji-Heravi A, Kiani O. Reference Values for Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations Using Percentile Regression Model: A Population Study in Mashhad . Iran J Health Sci 2019; 7 (1) :26-35
URL: http://jhs.mazums.ac.ir/article-1-611-en.html
, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. , Omidkiani.msc@gmail.com
Abstract:   (2450 Views)
Background and Purpose: Serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations are affected by several factors including ethnicity, diet, geographic, and environmental determinants, and are related to another disease, including hypothyroidism, and renal and liver disease. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if associated with high levels of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The distribution of TC levels within populations may be useful, and the current study aimed to determine the reference values and specific cut points in a population sample from Mashhad, Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data was collected from 6518 individuals (2483 men and 4035 women) aged 25–64 year-old living in Mashhad city using a stratified cluster random sampling design.
Reference values for borderline and high TC levels in three age groups were obtained using a percentile regression model. Data were analyzed using Quantreg Software Package and R Ver. 3.1.2 Software.
Results: Within the population sample, 38% of the subjects were male and 62% of them were female. The mean and standard deviation for age were found to be 47.07±9 years and 45.28±9 years for men and women, respectively. Percentile regression showed that borderline TC levels for men and women aged 25-64 years were 198-216 mg/dl and 176-243mg/dl, respectively. The values for defining high TC levels were also 226-239 mg/dl in men and 202 - 271 mg/dl in women.
Conclusion: Our study estimated reference values and cut points for borderline and high TC separately in both men and women, and age-related sub-groups for a population derived from Mashhad. These findings could be used in local policy plans to allocate health resources.
Full-Text [PDF 768 kb]   (1261 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Health

1. Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD. Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded?. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1986 Nov 28; 256(20):2823-2828. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.256.20.2823 [DOI:10.1001/jama.1986.03380200061022]
2. World Health Organization. (‎2005)‎. Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment: WHO global report. Geneva: World Health Organization.
3. Mainous AG, King DE, Garr DR, Pearson WS. Race, rural residence, and control of diabetes and hypertension. The Annals of Family Medicine. 2004; 2(6):563-8. [DOI:10.1370/afm.119] [PMCID]
4. Kuklina EV, Statistics NCFH. Trends in High LDL Cholesterol, Cholesterol-lowering Medication Use, and Dietary Saturated-fat Intake: United States, 1976-2010. National Center for Health Statistics. 2013 Mar;(117):1-8.
5. Health NIo. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Executive Summary Bethesda, MD, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Circulation (American Heart Association Council on Arteriosclerosis). 2018; 106(25):3143-421.
6. Chung SJ. Relationship among age, serum cholesterol level and population percentile in adults. International journal of bio-medical computing. 1992 Aug; 31(2):99-116. [DOI:10.1016/0020-7101(92)90066-2]
7. Hosseini M, Taslimi S, Yousefifard M, Asgari F, Etemad K, Miri HH, et al. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs. Iranian journal of public health. 2013; 42(2):164.
8. Pan H, Cole TJ. A comparison of goodness of fit tests for age-related reference ranges. Statistics in medicine. 2004 Jun 15; 23(11):1749-65. [DOI:10.1002/sim.1692]
9. Borghi E, De Onis M, Garza C, Van den Broeck J, Frongillo E, Grummer‐Strawn L, et al. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: selection of methods for attained growth curves. Statistics in medicine. 2006; 25(2):247-65. [DOI:10.1002/sim.2227]
10. Yu K, Lu Z, Stander J. Quantile regression: applications and current research areas. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. 2003; 52(3):331-50. doi.org/ 10. 1111/1467-9884.00363
11. Koenker R, Bassett Jr G. Quantile regression. Econometrica: journal of the Econometric Society. 1978 Jan; 46(1): 33-50. [DOI:10.2307/1913643]
12. Koenker, Roger, and Kevin F. Hallock. "Quantile Regression." Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2001; 15 (4): 143-156. [DOI:10.1257/jep.15.4.143]
13. Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Moohebati M, Esmaily H, Ebrahimi M, Parizadeh SMR, Heidari-Bakavoli AR, et al. Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHHAD) study: design, baseline characteristics and 10-year cardiovascular risk estimation. International journal of public health. 2015; 60(5): 561-72. [DOI:10.1007/s00038-015-0679-6]
14. Bermúdez VJ, Bello LM, Naguib A, A-ez RJ, Fortul Y, Toledo A, et al. Lipid profile reference intervals in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela: an insight from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome prevalence study. Revista Latino Americana de Hypertension. 2012; 7(2):24-34.
15. Consensus conference. Lowering Blood Cholesterol to Prevent Heart Disease. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1985; 253(14):2080–86. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.253.14.2080 [DOI:10.1001/jama.1985.03350380096029]
16. Carroll M, Sempos C, Briefel R, Gray S, Johnson C. Serum lipids of adults 20-74 years: United States, 1976-80. Vital and health statistics Series 11, Data from the national health survey. 1993; (242):1-107.
17. Kim JQ, Song J, Park YB, Lee HK, Kim YS, Ryoo UH, et al. National cholesterol treatment guidelines in Korean population. Journal of Korean medical science. 1997; 12 (1):17-22. [DOI:10.3346/jkms.1997.12.1.17]
18. Lim T, Ding L, Zaki M, Suleiman A, Kew S, Ismail M, et al. Distribution of blood total cholesterol in a national sample of Malaysian adults. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 2000; 55(1):78-89.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb