Volume 10, Issue 3 (Summer 2022)                   Iran J Health Sci 2022, 10(3): 32-43 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Balvardi M, Dehdashti N, Imani Ghoghary Z, Bashiri H, Alavi Arjas F. Prevalence of Sexual Behaviors among Medical Students in Southeast of Iran. Iran J Health Sci 2022; 10 (3) :32-43
URL: http://jhs.mazums.ac.ir/article-1-804-en.html
Assistant professor of Nursing, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran. , imanigoghary@yahoo.ca
Abstract:   (3627 Views)
Background and Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexual behaviors and sexting among students of medical science universities in southeast of Iran by indirect method.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using a multistage non-random sampling method, we recruited 3900 students from eight universities of medical sciences from Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces, Iran, in 2019. The data were collected using indirect (NSU: Network Scale-up) methods. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test.
Results: Out of 3900 students (mean (SD) age of 22.5 (3.3) years), 48­% were male and 41% were from Sistan and Baluchestan Province. The prevalence of watching porn, masturbation, sexting (text, photo and video), extramarital heterosexual intercourse by nonpayment, sex in return for payment, homosexuality, child abuse (sexual and behavioral), and abortion was 22.6% (95% CI: 21.3 – 24.0), 19.5% (95% CI: 18.2 – 20.7), 8.8% (95% CI: 7.9 – 9.7), 11.7% (95% CI: 10.7 – 12.7), 5.7 (95% CI: 5.0 – 6.5)%, 3.0% (95% CI: 2.5 – 3.5), 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6 – 1.2) and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.7 – 1.3),  respectively. 
Conclusion: According to the results, watching porn, masturbation, extramarital heterosexual intercourse by nonpayment and sexting were more common sexual behaviors among university students. Repetition and addiction to these behaviors can harm physical and psychological health of young people especially in Iranian custom, religion and cultural context. Therefore, the youth should be given appropriate training to correctly react to sexual situations.
Full-Text [PDF 654 kb]   (536 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Epidemiology

1. Wang, G.-F., et al., Sensitive periods for the effect of bullying victimization on suicidal behaviors among university students in China: the roles of timing and chronicity. Journal of affective disorders, 2020. 268: 12-19. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2020.02.049] [PMID]
2. Marston, C. and E. King, Factors that shape young people's sexual behaviour: a systematic review. The lancet, 2006. 368(9547):1581-1586. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69662-1]
3. Haglund, K., Recommendations for sexuality education for early adolescents. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 2006. 35(3): 369-375. [DOI:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00048.x] [PMID]
4. Zadehmohammadi, A. and Z. Ahmadabadi, The co-occurrence of risky behaviors among high school adolescents in Tehran. Journal of Family Research, 2008. 4(13): 87-100. (Persian)
5. Khojandi, G.A., et al., High-risk behaviors prevalence among Islamic Azad and Payame Noor University students in Roudan, 2016. 2019. doi: 10.1186/s13690-020-00514-y. (Persian) [DOI:10.1186/s13690-020-00514-y] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Rahmanian, F., et al., Gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention policies: A qualitative study. Health, 2014. 6: 1246-54. [DOI:10.4236/health.2014.611153]
7. Neverkovich, S.D., et al., Students' internet addiction: study and prevention. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 2018. 14(4): 1483-1495. [DOI:10.29333/ejmste/83723]
8. Grubbs, J.B., et al., Internet pornography use and sexual motivation: A systematic review and integration. Annals of the International Communication Association, 2019. 43(2): 117-155. [DOI:10.1080/23808985.2019.1584045]
9. Ghanbaribarzain, A., S. Salmanvandy, and N.S. Fatemi, An Analysis of the Impact of Premarital Sexual Relations on Marriage Orientation (Case Study: Students of University of Isfahan). Strategic Rssearch on Social Problems in Iran University of Isfahan, 2018. 7(3): 33-54.
10. Rahmani, A., E. Merghati-Khoei, and A. Fallahi, Perceived advantages and disadvantages of sex education in young women: a qualitative study. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction. 2018. 7(2): 57-61. [DOI:10.5812/ijhrba.57221]
11. Secretariat, N., Islamic Republic of Iran AIDS Progress Report. Ministry of Health and Medical Education Tehran, 2015.
12. Chi, X., L. Yu, and S. Winter, Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China. BMC Public Health, 2012. 12(1): 1-10. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-972] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Gökengin, D., et al., Sexual knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of students in Turkey. Journal of school health, 2003. 73(7): 258-263. [DOI:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb06575.x] [PMID]
14. Khalili, M., et al., Prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior among Iranian young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 2020: 105526. [DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105526]
15. Hedayati-Moghaddam, M.R., et al., Sexual and reproductive behaviors among undergraduate university students in Mashhad, a city in Northeast of Iran. Journal of reproduction & infertility, 2015. 16(1): 43.
16. Kebede, A., B. Molla, and H. Gerensea, Assessment of risky sexual behavior and practice among Aksum University students, Shire Campus, Shire Town, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2017. BMC research notes, 2018. 11(1): 1-6. [DOI:10.1186/s13104-018-3199-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Gunardi, H., et al., Premarital sex and its contributing factors in high-risk Indonesian adolescents: an observational study. Journal of Social Distress and Homelessness, 2021: 1-9. [DOI:10.1080/10530789.2021.1953890]
18. Alimoradi, Z., Contributing factors to high-risk sexual behaviors among Iranian adolescent girls: A systematic review. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery, 2017. 5(1): 2.
19. Sully, E., M. Giorgio, and S. Anjur-Dietrich, Estimating abortion incidence using the network scale-up method. Demographic Research. 2020; 43: 1651-1684. [DOI:10.4054/DemRes.2020.43.56]
20. Kazemzadeh, Y., et al., The frequency of high-risk behaviors among Iranian college students using indirect methods: network scale-up and crosswise model. International journal of high risk behaviors & addiction. 2016; 5(3): 25130. [DOI:10.5812/ijhrba.25130] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Balvardi M , D.N., Imani-Goghary Z, Ghaljeh M , Bashiri H, et al. , Investigating the Prevalence of Substance Use Among Students of Medical Science Universities in the Eighth Macro-region of Iran. International journal of high risk behaviors and addiction. 2021; 10(4): e113237 [DOI:10.5812/ijhrba.113237]
22. Fisher, T.D., Sex of experimenter and social norm effects on reports of sexual behavior in young men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2007; 36(1): 89-100. [DOI:10.1007/s10508-006-9094-7] [PMID]
23. Motamedi, M., et al., Paradoxical attitudes toward premarital dating and sexual encounters in Tehran, Iran: a cross-sectional study. Reproductive health. 2016; 13(1): 1-10. [DOI:10.1186/s12978-016-0210-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Vakilian, K., S.A. Mousavi, and A. Keramat, Estimation of sexual behavior in the 18-to-24-years-old Iranian youth based on a crosswise model study. BMC research notes, 2014; 7(1): 1-4. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-28] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Zahedi, R., et al., The prevalence and associated factors of extra/pre-marital sexual behaviors among university students in Kerman, Iran. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction. 2019; 8(1): e88266 [DOI:10.5812/ijhrba.88266]
26. Khalajabadi Farahani, F. and J. Cleland, Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran. Culture, health & sexuality. 2015; 17(6): 700-717. [DOI:10.1080/13691058.2014.990515] [PMID]
27. Mosavi, S.A., et al., Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2014; 55(1): 107-113. [DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.029] [PMID]
28. Anderson, L.E., et al., Young adults' sexual health in the digital age: perspectives of care providers. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. 2020; 25: p. 100534. [DOI:10.1016/j.srhc.2020.100534] [PMID]
29. Massey, K., J. Burns, and A. Franz, Young people, sexuality and the age of pornography. Sexuality & culture. 2021; 25(1): 318-336. [DOI:10.1007/s12119-020-09771-z]
30. Kasemy, Z., D.E.-S. Desouky, and G. Abdelrasoul, Sexual fantasy, masturbation and pornography among Egyptians. Sexuality & Culture. 2016; 20(3): 626-638. [DOI:10.1007/s12119-016-9346-1]
31. Mohammadi, M.R., et al., Reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behavior among adolescent males in Tehran, Iran. International family planning perspectives, 2006: 35-44.
32. Higgins, J.A., et al., Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviours among non-Hispanic white US college students. Sexual health. 2010; 7(1): 35-43. [DOI:10.1071/SH09028] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Robbins, C.L., et al., Prevalence, frequency, and associations of masturbation with partnered sexual behaviors among US adolescents. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 2011; 165(12): 1087-1093. [DOI:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.142] [PMID]
34. Gao, E., et al., How does traditional Confucian culture influence adolescents' sexual behavior in three Asian cities? Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012; 50(3): 12-17. [DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.002] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Ghorashi, Z., Teenage Sexting and Sexual Behaviors in an Iranian Setting. Sexuality & Culture. 2019; 23(4): 1274-1282. [DOI:10.1007/s12119-019-09622-6]
36. Balvardi, M., et al., Suicide and attempted suicide epidemiology in sirjan in 2018. International journal of high risk behaviors & addiction. 2021;10(2): e108648. [DOI:10.5812/ijhrba.108648]
37. Ghofrani, M., et al., Prevalence of induced abortion in Iran: a comparison of two indirect estimation techniques. International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2018; 44(2): 73-79. [DOI:10.1363/44e6218] [PMID]
38. Erfani, A., Determinants of induced abortion in Tehran, Iran: the role of contraceptive failure. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 2021; 1-13. [DOI:10.1080/13625187.2021.1876846] [PMID]
39. Machimbarrena, J.M., et al., Internet risks: An overview of victimization in cyberbullying, cyber dating abuse, sexting, online grooming and problematic internet use. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(11): 2471. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph15112471] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. Hudson, H.K. and J.V. Fetro, Sextual activity: Predictors of sexting behaviors and intentions to sext among selected undergraduate students. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015; 49: 615-622. [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.048]
41. Ingram, L.A., et al., Sexual behaviors, mobile technology use, and sexting among college students in the American South. American journal of health promotion. 2019; 33(1): 87-96. [DOI:10.1177/0890117118779008] [PMID]
42. Benotsch, E.G., et al., Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults. Journal of adolescent health. 2013; 52(3): 307-313. [DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.011] [PMID] [PMCID]
43. Mitchell, K.J., et al., Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics. 2012; 129(1): 13-20. [DOI:10.1542/peds.2011-1730] [PMID]
44. Benoit, C., et al., Would you think about doing sex for money? Structure and agency in deciding to sell sex in Canada. Work, employment and society. 2017; 31(5): 731-747. [DOI:10.1177/0950017016679331]
45. Torales, J., et al., Attitude of medical students in Paraguay towards homosexuality. East Asian Archives of Psychiatry 2018, 28(3): 101-103.
46. Karimi, A. and Z. Bayatrizi, Dangerous positions: Male homosexuality in the new penal code of Iran. Punishment & Society. 2019; 21(4): 417-434. [DOI:10.1177/1462474518787465]
47. Forbes, S., The reconstruction of homosexuality and its consequences in contemporary Iran. The SOAS Journal of Postgraduate Research. 2017; 10(2016-2017): 25-47.
48. Langevin, R., et al., Disentangling the associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and child sexual abuse: a systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 2021: Advance online publication.15248380211030234. [DOI:10.1177/15248380211030234] [PMID]
49. Scott-Sheldon, L.A., M.P. Carey, and K.B. Carey, Alcohol and risky sexual behavior among heavy drinking college students. AIDS and Behavior. 2010; 14(4): 845-853. [DOI:10.1007/s10461-008-9426-9] [PMID] [PMCID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Health Sciences

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb